It then increased slowly to over 200 TWh in 2018. It is a three-loop pool type reactor of 1470 MWt, 600 MWe gross and 560 MWe net. TVEL started making the fuel in 2016, with 4.5 TWh from each load. However, it appears that only six will be built domestically – two V-392M and four V-491 – before moving onto the VVER-TOI, with potential for international design certification. Project approval was confirmed by government decree in September 2009, following initial approval in mid-2008 as an amendment to the federal target program (FTP) of 2007. It envisages nuclear providing 45-50% of electricity at that time, with the share rising to 70-80% by the end of the century. In 2019 Rosatom outlined its HTR program, with the focus on hydrogen production by adiabatic conversion of methane with utilisation of CO2, and commissioning HTR plants for this by 2030. In Russia (power index 93 of max 100) leaders basically command and control and then punish or reward – the Russian president is one good example and role … ), In the 1990s, 5 GW of thermal power plants (mostly AST-500 integral PWR type) were planned for district and industrial heat to be constructed at Arkhangelsk (four VK-300 units commissioned to 2016), Voronezh (two AST-500 units 2012-18), Saratov, Dimitrovgrad and (small-scale, KLT-40 type PWR) at Chukoyka and Severodvinsk. From the 1970s ther have been plans for nuclear district heating plants (AST). OMZ's Izhorskiye Zavody facility at Izhora provided the pressure vessel for unit 3. Proceeding with the project depended on successful testing of the nitride fuel in the BN-600 reactor from the end of 2013. Kalinin units 1-3 are quoted at 1075 MWe gross after uprate, and unit 4 started pilot commercial operation at 104% of rated power in February 2015, with 40 MWe increase. In August 2013 Rostechnadzor licensed the shipyard to install the RITM-200 reactor units from OKBM Afrikantov for the pilot model. It is intended to extend this. To the end of 2011, 15-year extensions had been achieved for 17 units totalling 9.8 GWe. In July 2020 Rosatom reported that first fuel asssmblies had been loaded, and the reactor was connected to the grid in October 2020. The VVER-1200A/V-501 was expected to have lower construction cost, but now a VVER-1300A seems to fill this role. During the Russian Revolution, there was lots of corruption of power. Instead, major announcements were made regarding Kursk II (see below). Export revenues in 2015 were $6.4 billion, up 20% from 2014. A detailed design would be developed for a multi-purpose fast neutron research reactor (MBIR) by 2014 also. The 2x35 MWe plant, named Academician Lomonosov, was due to be commissioned in 2012, but the project was delayed due to shipyard insolvency. Alexei Navalny poisoning: what theatrical assassination attempts reveal about Vladimir Putin’s grip on power in Russia September 9, 2020 12.52pm EDT. We hope this will help you to understand Russian better. India: Beyond Kudankulam 3&4, in 2009 plans to build four more VVER units (probably AES-2006) were confirmed for Haripur in West Bengal. However, in June 2013 construction was suspended due to lack of interest in the project from the Baltic states, Poland and Germany, all of whom have historical issues regarding Russia and/or Kaliningrad. The long preparatory period with a year’s delay before return to criticality in mid-2015 was due to a technical issue with the fuel assemblies, which had to be redesigned when it became clear that not enough MOX fuel would be available for an initial core load. Cruiser Aurora. The aim is to have almost half of Russia's electricity from nuclear and hydro by 2030. Although Russian officials have not commented on the Port Sudan facility’s geopolitical significance, Russia’s construction of a Red Sea base is an important landmark in its resurgence as a great power. Russian government quits as Putin plans to stay in power past 2024 This article is more than 10 months old President accepts PM’s resignation ahead … In March 2013 SPbAEP (merged with VNIPIET to become Atomproekt) said that subject to Rosatom approval it could have a VVER-640 project ready to go possibly at the Kola site by the end of 2014. In 2015 Ukraine rescinded the contract. Panov et al 2006, Floating Power Sources Based on Nuclear reactor Plants At a 65% capacity factor, fuel reloading is required after seven years and major overhaul period is 20 years. It was a four-loop design, 42,350 MWt producing 1500 MWe gross, with increased pressure vessel diameter to 5 metres, 241 fuel assemblies in core enriched to 4.4%, burn-up up 45-55 and up to 60 GWd/t and life of 60 years. By the mid-1980s Russia had 25 power reactors in operation, but the nuclear industry was beset by problems. A revised scheme in mid-2010 projected 1288 TWh demand in 2020 and 1553 TWh in 2030, requiring 78 GWe of new plant by 2020 and total 178 GWe new build by 2030, including 43.4 GWe nuclear. Preliminary design was completed in 2001 and the prototype was to be constructed at Seversk (Tomsk-7, Siberian Chemical Combine) by 2010, with construction of the first four-module power plant (4x285 MWe) by 2015. Balakovo units 5&6 have been listed as prospective for some time but were dropped off the 2007-08 Rosatom plan for completing 26 new power reactors by 2020 as they were low priority for UES grid supply. The plant will also supply 7.5 PJ/yr of district heating. About sharing. Beloyarsk 5 as a BN-1200 plant was included in the Regional Energy Planning Scheme in November 2013 and confirmed in the government decree in August 2016. It has natural circulation in the primary circuit. The core is similar to that of the KLT-40 except that enrichment is 16.5% and average burn-up 95 GWd/t. In February 2008 ASE formed an alliance with TechnoPromExport (TPE), an exporter of all other large-scale power generation types. It uses major components originally supplied for Belene in Bulgaria. Only two of the projects listed below are BOO at this stage. Russia’s soft power in Sudan took a hit, though, when it opposed a U.N. resolution condemning the transitional military government’s massacre of 128 demonstrators in … Atomproekt was the general designer. However in April 2014 Rosatom said the Baltic plant was designed to “operate within the unified grid of the Baltics and North-West of Russia”. Also the new 300 MWe units were listed as being VBER-300 PWR types. It is a 61,900 tonne 260 m long lash-carrier (taking lighters to ports with shallow water) and container ship with ice-breaking bow. Unit 4 construction started in June 2010. A plan for refurbishment, upgrade and life extension of Novovoronezh 5 was announced in mid-2009, this being a prototype of the second-generation VVER-1000 design. Financing will be a significant consideration. From mid 2000 Rosenergoatom prepared Balakovo II for construction completion. Capital cost was said to be US$ 1200/kW (though the first contract of them is more like $2100/kW) and construction time 54 months. It was submitted to Rostechnadzor in 2013 for licensing, and was certified by the European Utility Requirements for LWR Nuclear Power Plants (EUR) organisation in 2019. OKBM Afrikantov's VBER-300 PWR is a 325 MWe gross, 295 MWe net, PWR unit developed from naval power reactors and was originally envisaged in pairs as a floating nuclear power plant. Rosatom’s Scientific & Technical Board reviewed it along with cost estimates in August 2015. It is intended to produce electricity at RUR 0.65/kWh (US 2.23 cents/kWh). Russia is one of the few countries without a populist energy policy favouring wind and solar generation; the priority is unashamedly nuclear. The State Environmental Commission of the Federal Service for Supervision of Natural Resources (Rosprirodnadzor) issued a positive statement on the construction licence application package for the pilot demonstration power complex (PDPC) and fuel fabrication module in June 2014, and Rostechnadzor issued a licence in 2014. The first focused on a lead-cooled fast reactor such as BREST with its fuel cycle, and assumed mobilisation of all available resources on this project with a total funding of about RUR 140 billion (about $3.1 billion). These powerful vessels have two 171 MWt OK-900A reactors delivering 54 MW at the propellers and are used in deep Arctic waters. In November 2013 the Regional Energy Planning Scheme suggested the early V-230 units 1&2 might continue to operate until two new VVER-TOI units are commissioned, likely to be 2025 and 2030 respectively. Hungary: In January 2014 an agreement was signed for two reactors, apparently AES-2006, with low-interest finance to cover 80% of the cost. A second agreement for $500 million loan covers the establishment of a nuclear science and technology centre.  In August 2016 the first VVER-1200, Novovoronezh II-1, was connected to the grid.. The IAEA initially lists it as sodium-cooled. Brussels, 23. First, demand rose strongly to 2010 after more than a decade of stagnation; secondly some 50 GWe of generating plant (more than a quarter of it) in the European part of Russia is approcahing the end of its design lifetime; and thirdly Gazprom cut back on the very high level of natural gas supplies for electricity generation because it can make about five times as much money by exporting the gas to the West (over 30% of EU gas comes from Russia). InterRAO UES was responsible for soliciting investment (by about 2014, well after construction start) and also for electricity sales. In April 2014 the fuel fabrication/re-fabrication module was approved by the State Expert Review Authority of Russia (Glavgosekspertiza). Further reactor details in the information paper on Fast Neutron Reactors. Russia has made use of its hard power in international relations, bullying and threatening its neighbors and interfering in U.S. politics. The reactor plant mass is 2200 tonnes for two. NIAEP-ASE suspended construction in June 2013 (see below), pending a full review of the project intended to be by mid-2014, though some work on the containment was ongoing in following months. The 2340 MWe Tsentral (Central) nuclear power plant is to be 5-10 km northwest of Buisk Town in the Kostroma region, on the Kostroma River. Silmash is 26% owned by Siemens. * a subsidiary of privately-owned United Industrial Corporation. It started up and was grid connected in December 2014, reached full power in July 2015, and entered commercial operation in September 2015. The first 1200 MWe unit of the Seversk AES-2006 plant 32 km northwest of Tomsk was due to start up in 2015 with the second in 2017, but has been postponed, and a decision on construction schedule was still unresolved in 2012, in the light of electricity demand. They have enhanced safety including that related to earthquakes and aircraft impact with some passive safety features and double containment. BREST-300 has 17.6 tonnes of fuel, BREST-1200 about 60 tonnes. In 2009 Siemens announced that it would withdraw from Areva and forge a link with Rosatom. Annealing of the unit 2 reactor vessel was undertaken in 2016, with the service life extended to the end of 2029. Tver and Tsentral are considered alternatives in the short term. The company sees its strength as its ability to make an integrated offer for its nuclear power plants, offering not only turnkey construction and fuel, but also training, services, infrastructure development, legal and regulatory structures, etc. Insurrection Planning. All RBMK reactors now use recycled uranium from VVER-440 reactors and some has also been used experimentally at Kalinin 2 and Kola 2 VVERs. In 2008 the company rebuilt its 12,000 tonne hydraulic press, claimed to be the largest in Europe, and a second stage of work will increase that capacity to 15,000 tonnes. But now, due to potential isolation of the Kaliningrad Region grid*, Rosatom “has to rebuild its project completely.” In June 2015 Latvia’s SiltumElektroProjekt LLC (SEP) won a RUR 47 million, six-month contract to do a feasibility study on connecting the Baltic plant ‘interstate’. Construction start was then deferred to 2022, with the first unit expected online in 2027. Russia is one of the world's largest producers of nuclear energy. Kuznetsov, Y.N., Rosatom, Nuclear Cogeneration Power Plants in Solution of Energy Ecological and Social Problems in Russia's Regions, November 2016 The Seven Commandments are symbolism of how communism becomes corrupt with power. Rosatom started engineering surveys for Kursk II in 2011, and set up a task force of representatives from the nuclear industry and Kursk Region government to produce project documentation on construction of Kursk II. Building and operating the BREST-OD-300 reactor, at JSC NIKIET. It expected construction licences in 2014 and construction start in 2015, but the delay to units 1&2 extends to units 3&4. From July 2008, 25% of all Russia's power is sold on the competitive market. By July 2012, 30.5 GWe nuclear was projected for 2020. For older RBMK units, service lifetime performance recovery (LPR) operations involve correcting deformation of the graphite stack. Operational lifetime is 40 years, with possible extension to 60 years. Among other things, the BN-800 must answer questions about the economic viability of potential fast reactors ... if such a unit has more functions than to generate electricity, then it becomes economically attractive. In the government decree of August 2016 a single VVER-600 was specified, for completion by 2030. St Petersburg Atomenergoproekt - VNIPIET (now merged as Atomproekt) is the architect engineer, Nizhniy Novgorod AEP (NIAEP) is construction manager, with Atomstroyexport (ASE). The wholesale power market was to be fully liberalised by 2011. 13) in each fuel assembly (in 132 fuel assemblies out of 241 in a 3300 MWt reactor). The actual reactors are each 1500 tonnes lighter, so the barge is smaller* and displacement is reduced from about 21,000 to 12,000 tonnes. A broader Rosatom feasibility study on regional power has concluded that up to 38 cogeneration reactors could be deployed at 14 sites for this purpose: Arkhangelsk (4, with high local support), Ishevsk (2), Ivanovo (2), Kazan (3), Khabarovsk (4), Komsomolsk-on-Amur (3), Kurgan (2), Murmansk (2), Perm (2), Tver (2), Ufa (2), Ulyanovsk (3), Vyatka (2) and Yaroslavl (3). Grigory Ponomarenko, OKB “GIDROPRESS”, Present and Future of WWER Technology, presented at the IAEA Technical Meeting on Technology Assessment for New Nuclear Power Programmes, held in Vienna, Austria on 1-3 September 2015 The long preparatory period with a year’s delay before return to criticality in mid-2015 was due to a technical issue with the fuel assemblies, which had to be redesigned when it became clear that not enough MOX fuel would be available for an initial core load. Unit 4 started up in December 2017, was grid-connected five weeks later in February 2018 and entered commercial operation in September 2018. Then a two-unit VVER-1200 plant was included in the Regional Energy Planning Scheme in November 2013. V. Ivanov, WNA Symposium 2001; A.Gagarinski and A. Malyshev, WNA Symposium 2002 In September 2015 a pre-startup peer review was conducted for unit 1 under World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) auspices. BREST is the focus of this, and Rosatom's long-term strategy up to 2050 involves moving to inherently safe nuclear plants using fast reactors with a closed fuel cycle and MOX or nitride fuel. Initially two projects were proposed – the BREST-300 lead-cooled fast reactor with associated nitride fuel fabricating/re-fabricating and spent fuel reprocessing facilities and the SVBR-100 lead-bismuth fast reactor, since dropped. The overall budget for the energy and metals complex was estimated by the Minister of Investment in the Saratov District to be about $12 billion. Kursk: Having had a licence extension to 2016, Kursk 1 was the first RBMK unit to be licensed for pilot operation with 5% uprate (reported to 1020 MWe net) but units 2&4 were also operating at this level late in 2011. Translation for 'earning power' in the free English-Russian dictionary and many other Russian translations. Indonesia is one possible market. After this period, a cumulative 104% power operation report is produced for each plant. This second option was designed to attract more funds apart from the federal budget allocation, was favoured by Rosatom, and was accepted. The Kola 3 licence extension to 2026 (45 years) was confirmed in February 2016 after upgrading work. Novovoronezh: Units 3&4 gained 15-year licence extensions to 2016 and 2017, then unit 4 was given a further 15-year licence extension, using parts from the shutdown unit 3. The agreement has wide scope. In 2016 four Russian cities have expressed an interest in using small reactors to supply heat and power, according to NIKIET. Mooring tests started in mid-2016, and in May 2018, the vessel completed the first leg of its journey to Pevek, mooring in Murmansk for fuel loading. Fuel loading was completed in October 2018, with startup in December 2019, and commercial operation in May 2020. See also Small Nuclear Reactors information paper. But by the late 1990s exports of reactors to Iran, China and India were negotiated and Russia's stalled domestic construction program was revived as far as funds allowed. In 2017 the pressure vessel made for unit 1 was sent to Ostrovets in Belarus, replacing one that had suffered a mishap there. Starting 2020-25 it is envisaged that fast neutron power reactors will play an increasing role in Russia, with substantial recycle of fuel. The principal scheme of innovative nuclear power for Russia based on new technology platform envisages full recycling of fuel, balancing thermal and fast reactors, so that 100 GWe of total capacity requires only about 100 tonnes of input per year, from enrichment tails, natural uranium and thorium, with minor actinides being burned. Additionally, the V-392M design is fitted with a four-channel emergency passive core flooding system. 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